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International Conference on Quantum Mechanics and Applications , will be organized around the theme “Modern breakthroughs in the field of Quantum Mechanics and Applications”
Quantum Mechanics 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Quantum Mechanics 2018
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If we had to summarize what quantum chemistry was in simple terms, it's basically the study of the very small. A long time ago before the scientific instrumentation we have today, scientists thought that the atom was the simplest form of matter (anything with a mass, regardless of how big or small). As time went on, however, it turned out they were wrong. There seemed to exist particles that actually made up atoms, things called subatomic particles. Quantum chemical studies use also semi-empirical and other methods based on quantum mechanical principles, and deal with time dependent problems. Many quantum chemical studies assume the nuclei are at rest (Born–Oppenheimer approximation).Major goals of quantum chemistry include increasing the accuracy of the results for small molecular systems, and increasing the size of large molecules that can be processed, which is limited by scaling considerations—the computation time increases as a power of the number of atoms.
The first step in solving a quantum chemical problem is usually solving the Schrödinger equation (or Dirac equation in relativistic quantum chemistry) with the electronic molecular Hamiltonian. This is called determining the electronic structure of the molecule. It can be said that the electronic structure of a molecule or crystal implies essentially its chemical properties. An exact solution for the Schrödinger equation can only be obtained for the hydrogen atom (though exact solutions for the bound state energies of the hydrogen molecular ion have been identified in terms of the generalized Lambert W function).
Quantum Chemistry states the following:
- Bohr model states that electrons are particles which move around the nucleus in fixed orbitals.
- Electrons need a certain amount of energy to move between orbitals.
- Quantum model states that electrons are not particles, but have wavelike characteristics and so do not move in uniform orbitals.
- Various properties of the electrons can be calculated with the Schroëdinger's Equation:
Bohr's radius is an important constant in the Schroëdinger's Equation. In an atom, for the first orbit where n=1, the radius r is called the Bohr radius.
Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks. The best known example of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution which offers an information-theoretically secure solution to the key exchange problem. Except for post-quantum cryptography (see below), as of 2017, currently used popular public-key encryption and signature schemes (e.g., elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) and RSA) can be broken by quantum adversaries. Quantum cryptography uses Heisenberg's uncertainty principle formulated in 1927, and the no-cloning theoremfirst articulated by Wootters and Zurek and Dieks in 1982. Werner Heisenberg discovered one of the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics: "At the instant at which the position of the electron is known, its momentum therefore can be known only up to magnitudes which correspond to that discontinuous change; thus, the more precisely the position is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known, and conversely.Quantum cryptography was proposed first by Stephen Wiesner. The most well known and developed application of quantum cryptography is Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)which is the task of generating a private key shared between two parties using a (completely insecure) quantum channel and an authenticated (but not private) classical channel (e.g., a telephone line). The private key can then be used to encrypt messages that are sent over an insecure classical channel (such as a conventional internet connection).
Unlike traditional cryptography, where the security is usually based on the fact that an adversary is unable to solve a certain mathematical problem, QKD achieves security through the laws of quantum physics. More precisely, it is based on the fact that an eavesdropper, trying to intercept the quantum communication, will inevitably leave traces which can thus be detected. In this case, the QKD protocol aborts the generation of the key. The security of quantum key distribution can be proven mathematically without imposing any restrictions on the abilities of an eavesdropper, something not possible with classical key distribution. This is usually described as "unconditional security", although there are some minimal assumptions required, including that the laws of quantum mechanics apply and that Alice and Bob are able to authenticate each other, i.e. Eve should not be able to impersonate Alice or Bob as otherwise a man-in-the-middle attack would be possible.
Quantum in physics is a measure of the minimum quantity of something, generally energy that something can possess. Quantum cryptography is basically the application of quantum mechanics to cryptography. The biggest advantage of using quantum cryptography is that it is possible to perform cryptographic tasks that were earlier deemed to be impossible using non-quantum techniques. Data that is encoded in a quantum state cannot be replicated and even when such data is just read, the state of the data stored in a quantum state changes. Detection of eavesdropping is something that quantum cryptography is best suited for. Quantum Cryptography was discovered at the Columbia University in the 1970s. Europe has been the main region as far as adoption of quantum cryptography.
- Track 3-1Quantum Thermodynamics
- Track 3-2Quantum Monte Carlo
- Track 3-3Quantum Dynamics
- Track 3-4Quantum States
- Track 3-5Quantum Materials
- Track 3-6Quantum Magnetism
- Track 3-7Quantum Chemistry
- Track 3-8Quantum Cosmology
- Track 3-9Quantum Nanoscience
- Track 3-10Quantum Electronics
- Track 3-11Quantum Nanomechanics
Initial success of quantum field theory was quantum electrodynamics (QED) that is still the paradigmatic example of a successful quantum field theory. Ordinarily, quantum mechanics (QM) cannot give an account of photons which constitute the prime case of relativistic 'particles'. At the speed c, a non-relativistic theory such as ordinary QM cannot give even an estimated description as photons have rest mass zero and similarly move in the vacuum. Photons are implicit in the emission and absorption processes which have to be postulated; for instance, when one of an atom's electrons makes a transition between energy levels. The formalism of QFT is required for an explicit explanation of photons. As soon as the conceptual framework of quantum mechanics was developed, a small group of theoreticians tried to extend quantum methods to electromagnetic fields. Modern developments of quantum field theory are as follows- Algebraic quantum field theory, Axiomatic quantum field theory, Topological quantum field theory (TQFT).
- Track 4-1Conformal Field Theory
- Track 4-2Non-abelian Gauge Theories
- Track 4-3Scalar Fields
- Track 4-4Renormalization
- Track 4-5Quantum Electrodynamics
- Track 4-6Dirac Equation
Quantum mechanics as well as quantum field theory, is a division of physics which is an essential concept of nature at the minimum scales of energy levels of subatomic particles and atoms. Classical physics derives from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid only at macroscopic scales. Quantum mechanics varies from classical physics in that momentum, energy and other quantities are often limited to discrete values i.e. quantization, objects have characteristics of both waves and particles and there are limits to the precision with which quantities can be known. Forecasts of quantum mechanics have been tested experimentally to an extremely high degree of accuracy. According to the correspondence principle between quantum mechanics and classical mechanics, all objects follow the laws of quantum mechanics. Classical mechanics is just an approximation for large systems of objects.
- Track 5-1Quantum Theory
- Track 5-2In-depth Quantum Mechanics
- Track 5-3Quantum Mechanics Interpretations
- Track 5-4Mathematical Formulations
- Track 5-5Philosophical Implications
- Track 5-6Hilbert Space
- Track 5-7Quantum Chaos
- Track 5-8Quantum Coherence
- Track 5-9Quantum Nanomechanics
- Track 5-10Quantum Logic
- Track 5-11Paradoxes
String Theory is a hypothetical system in which the point-like particles of molecule material science are supplanted by one-dimensional things called strings. It describes how these strings propagate through space and interact with each other. On distance scales larger than the string scale, a string looks just like an ordinary particle, with its mass, charge, and other properties determined by the vibrational state of the string. Thus, string theory is a theory of quantum gravity. Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of hypothetical material science that looks to depict gravity as per the standards of quantum mechanics, and where quantum impacts can't be overlooked, for example, close conservative astrophysical items where the impacts of gravity are solid. In string theory, one of the numerous vibrational conditions of the string related to the graviton, a quantum mechanical molecule that conveys gravitational power.
- Track 6-1String Dualities
- Track 6-2Black Hole Thermodynamics
- Track 6-3Super Gravity
- Track 6-4Problem of Time
- Track 6-5String Cosmology
- Track 6-6Branes
- Track 6-7S-Matrix
- Track 6-8M-Theory
- Track 6-9Super-String Theory
- Track 6-10Loop Quantum Gravity
- Track 6-11Bose-Einstein condensation
- Track 6-12Superfluidity
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are substantial. The equation is a mathematical formulation for studying quantum mechanical systems. It is considered a vital result in the study of quantum systems and its derivation was a significant milestone in developing the theory of quantum mechanics. It was named after Erwin Schrödinger, who derived the equation in 1925 and published it in 1926, forming the basis for his work that occasioned in his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933. The equation is a type of differential equation known as a wave-equation, which serves as a mathematical model of the movement of waves. The Schrödinger equation is not the only way to study quantum mechanical systems and make predictions, as there are other quantum mechanical formulations such as matrix mechanics, introduced by Werner Heisenberg, and path integral formulation, developed chiefly by Richard Feynman. Paul Dirac incorporated matrix mechanics and the Schrödinger equation into a single formulation. Schrodingerï ½ s time-independent equation can be solved analytically for a number of simple systems. The time-dependant equation is of the first order in time but of the second order with respect to the co-ordinates, hence it is not consistent with relativity. The solutions for bound systems give three quantum numbers, corresponding to three co-ordinates, and an approximate relativistic correction is possible by including fourth spin quantum number.
The laws of subatomic physics dictate that individual quarks are never seen in the wild; they always travel around in twos or threes. At sufficiently high temperatures, however—such as those reached in a high-energy particle collider—protons and neutrons are thought to disintegrate into a soup, or plasma, of individual quarks and gluons, before cooling and recombining into ordinary matter. That is what QCD predicts, at any rate. So, since 1994, an international team of researchers at CERN, the European laboratory for particle physics in Geneva, has been smashing lead nuclei together and then combing through the hail of subatomic particles that result from these collisions to look for evidence of quark-gluon plasma. On February 10, 2000 the CERN researchers announced that analysis of the results of seven separate types of collision collectively provided evidence of the creation, for the first time, of just such a soup.
- Track 8-1Effective Field Theories
- Track 8-2Lattice QCD
- Track 8-3Perturbative QCD
- Track 8-4Chiral Perturbation Theory
- Track 8-5Dense Quark Matter
- Track 8-6Correlations & Fluctuations
Condensed matter physics tries to comprehend and control the properties of matter in its solid and fluid forms from essential physical principles of quantum and statistical mechanics. Today, condensed matter physics is one of the most active and exciting research area in both basic sciences and technological applications. At the important level, condensed matter physics is logically stimulating because of the proceeding with revelations of numerous new phenomena and the advancement of new ideas and devices that are important to understand them. It is the field in which advances in theory can most directly be confronted with experiments. It has repeatedly served as a source or testing ground for new ideas (e.g., Josephson effect, integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, Aharanov-Bohm effect, mechanism of high-Tc superconductors, dissipative quantum physics, critical phenomena, mesoscopic physics, nonlinear dynamics, etcTrack 6-1Quantum Spin Systems
- Track 9-1Quantum Spin Systems
- Track 9-2Quantum topological excitations
- Track 9-3Quantum Wire
- Track 9-4Quantum Hall Effect
- Track 9-5Correlated Quantum Systems
- Track 9-6Quantum Phenomena
- Track 9-7Quantum Dynamics through classical trajectories
- Track 9-8High-temperature Superconductivity
- Track 9-9Quantum Criticality
- Track 9-10Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations
- Track 9-11Quantum phase transitions
- Track 9-12Quantum many-body systems
- Track 9-13Quantum magnets
Employing single molecules as active functional units in electronic devices is a promising new technological concept of fast growing interest. For the development of such components it is crucial to better understand electron transport through single molecules. Transport measurements through single molecules which are immobilized by self-assembling techniques between two metallic electrodes have already proven the ability of organic molecules to act as functional parts in nano-scale devices. Three relevant methods to fabricate suitable electrodes have been established in recent years: i) mechanical controlled break junctions ii) on-chip electrodes with fixed distance iii) Scanning Probe Microscopy.
- Track 10-1Quantum Spin hall systems
- Track 10-2Quantum Chaos in Quantum Transport
- Track 10-3Quantum Tunneling
- Track 10-4Quantum Confinement
- Track 10-5Quantum Transport In Cold Atoms
- Track 10-6Quantum Hall Transport
- Track 10-7Heat Transport
- Track 10-8Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems
- Track 10-9Quantum transport in low-dimensional systems
- Track 10-10Quantum transport in strongly correlated systems
- Track 10-11Transport In Graphene
Quantum optics deals with the communication of photons with matter. Study of separate photons is vital to understanding the behaviour of electromagnetic waves as a whole. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an established medical imaging method that uses light to capture micrometer-resolution, three-dimensional images from within optical scattering media. Optoelectronics is the study as well as application of electronic systems and devices that detect, source and control light is known as Optoelectronics. Global preponderant enterprises are persistently refining the optoelectronic industrial chain by mergers and acquisitions to polish their effectiveness.
- Track 11-1Optical Coherence
- Track 11-2Quantum Memory
- Track 11-3Free Quantum Radiation
- Track 11-4Quantum Photonics
- Track 11-5Quantum Lasers
- Track 11-6Quantum Dots
- Track 11-7Quantum Sensors
- Track 11-8Quantum states of light
- Track 11-9Quantum Optoelectronics
- Track 11-10Quantum Interferometry
- Track 11-11Bell Inequalities
- Track 11-12Ultra cold atoms & Quantum Gases
Quantum computing is the part of study focused on developing computer technology based on the principles of quantum theory which explains the nature and behaviour of energy and matter on the quantum (subatomic and atomic) level. The fame of quantum mechanics in cryptography is increasing as they are highly used in the encryption of information. Quantum cryptography allows the transmission of most critical data with the uppermost level of security, which in turn, propels the growth of the quantum computing market. Quantum computing has got a huge array of applications, most of which we cannot even comprehend today. Quantum computing is known to have applications in the development of new materials and drugs, and many more.
- Track 12-1Quantum Information Theory
- Track 12-2Quantum Networks
- Track 12-3Quantum Supremacy
- Track 12-4Solid State Quantum Computing
- Track 12-5Quantum Gates
- Track 12-6Quantum Channels
- Track 12-7Quantum Algorithms
- Track 12-8Quantum cryptography
- Track 12-9Quantum Key Distribution
- Track 12-10Quantum Teleportation
- Track 12-11Q-Complexity Theory
- Track 12-12Quantum Error Correction
- Track 12-13Quantum Information Processing
- Track 12-14Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
Quantum advances are those that harness quantum physics to pick up usefulness or execution which is generally unattainable – the capacity of quantum advances are derived from science that can't be clarified by established material science, for example, Newton's Laws of motion, thermodynamics, or Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. Quantum thermodynamics supplies a steady portrayal of quantum coolers and heat engines up to the level of a solitary couple of level frameworks coupled to the environment. Once the environment is split into three; hot, cold and work reservoirs a heat engine can operate. The device translates the positive gain into power. Reversing the process changes the device into a quantum refrigerator. The quantum tricycle, a device connected by three external leads to three heat reservoirs is used as a template for engines and refrigerators. .
- Track 13-1Quantum Machine Learning
- Track 13-2Quantum Heat Engines & Refrigerators
- Track 13-3Quantum Motor
- Track 13-4Quantum Enhanced Measurements
- Track 13-5Quantum Communication
- Track 13-6Quantum wells
- Track 13-7Open Quantum System
- Track 13-8Quantum Integrated Devices
- Track 13-9Quantum Imaging
- Track 13-10Quantum simulation
- Track 13-11Quantum Satellite
- Track 13-12Neuroquantology
- Track 13-13Quantum Cognition
- Track 13-14Quantum Neural Networks
- Track 13-15Quantum Annealing
- Track 13-16Electronic Quantum Holography